In linguistics across cultures, not everything is always what it seems. Among different languages there are false cognates, sometimes referred to as “false friends.” These words look like one thing in one language, but mean something entirely different in another.

New language learners must be aware of them and careful when using them. While it can sometimes simply lead to embarrassment, other times it can get you into a more troublesome situation.

Here are some examples:

  • English/Spanish

Embarrass: In the English language, it refers to “shame.” The Spanish meaning of embarazar or embarazada is equivalent to the English word “pregnant.” Speakers should be careful not to say “Estoy embarazada” if they mean to say “I am embarrassed.” He or she would be stating, “I’m pregnant!” Instead, say “Estoy avergonzado.”

Libreria: This does not refer to a library. Instead, it is a bookstore where you purchase books. A biblioteca is equal to a “library” in English.

Mayor: In English, this word refers to the head official in a municipal government. In Spanish, it means “older in age” or “wholesale” in business (versus something sold retail).

Pie: In English, this refers to a pastry baked with a fruit, vegetable or meat filling. In Spanish, the word means “foot.”

Sin: A word that refers to the ultimate wrongdoing in English simply means “without” in Spanish.

  • Spanish/Portuguese

Rato: In Spanish, it means “while,” referring to time. In Portuguese, it refers to a rodent.

Escritorio: In Spanish, the middle “o” does not have an accent and means “desk.” In Portuguese, it is written as such: escritório and means “office.”

  • English/German

Billion: This can be very tricky, especially in big business. In German, “billion” means the English “trillion.” If you really want to say “billion,” the German word is milliarde.

Bald: In German, this word means “soon;” in English, it is description for someone without hair. The German word for “bald” is kahl.

Mist: In English, this word describes moisture like a fine rain. In German, however, it refers to manure. The fine rain in Germany would be called nebel or dunst.

Taste: When dining, be careful when asking for a “taste.” The word means key, like the keyboard on a computer. The German word for a “taste” of food is geschmack.

  • English/Polish

Ordynarny: While the word looks very similar to the English “ordinary,” what it really refers to in Polish is being vulgar or foul-mouthed.

Hazard: In English, this is typically something to be alerted to on the road if there is danger. In Polish, the word refers to gambling.

  • American English/British English

Even when speaking the same language, “false friends” can pop up in conversation. In America, “football” refers to the National Football League. In Britain and most all other countries, “football” is equal to American soccer.

Braces in the UK do not go on your teeth, but hold up your pants. They are like American suspenders.

trolley in America is a large car that typically rolls on tracks. In the UK, it’s a small metal basket on wheels used in grocery stores.